Archive for the ‘History’ Category
I just learned, today, that November is Native American Heritage Month.
So, while it still is November, please read the information on the following website about the heritage of those whose ancestors were here long before the European explorers and settlers, including the Pilgrims – who celebrated their first thanksgiving 392 years ago this fall – arrived.
This was first posted on November 24, 2011
By Allen Payton, Publisher
It was 390 years ago, this year, that the first Thanksgiving feast was celebrated by the Pilgrims and their Indian friends in Plymouth Colony, Massachusetts.
Who were the Pilgrims?
Christian Protestants in England, became known as Puritans, because of their differences with the Church of England. Most remained within the Church of England, but a small group of Puritans, known as Separatists, who chose to leave the church, were persecuted for their faith. Around 1607 or 1608 about 300 Separatists left England and relocated to Holland.
Then in 1620, some of the Separatists chose to leave Holland for a place where they could be free to practice their faith. Along with adventurers, other colonists recruited by the venture’s financial backers and the ship’s crew, for a total of102 people, the Separatists sailed to the New World on the ship the Mayflower.
It was William Bradford, who became their first governor, who gave themselves the label of Pilgrims, from the Bible verse in the book of Hebrews chapter 11, verse 13, which states “they were strangers and pilgrims on the earth.” He stated “They knew they were pilgrims, and looked not much on those things, but lifted up their eyes to the heavens, their dearest country.”
According to what became known as The Mayflower Compact, the voyage was “undertaken for the glory of God and advancement of the Christian faith and honor of our kind and country…to plant the first colony in the Northern parts of Virginia” Instead, the voyagers first spotted land on November 9, 1620 and then chose to set anchor in Provincetown Harbor, Massachusetts on November 11.
“The Mayflower Compact was signed that day on board the Mayflower, which was at anchor in Provincetown Harbor. The document was drawn up in response to ‘mutinous speeches’ that had come about because the Pilgrims had intended to settle in Northern Virginia, but the decision was made after arrival to instead settle in New England. Since there was no government in place, some felt they had no legal obligation to remain within the colony and supply their labor. The Mayflower Compact attempted to temporarily establish that government until a more official one could be drawn up in England that would give them the right to self-govern themselves in New England.”(1)
Read the complete Mayflower Compact by clicking here.
They then settled across Cape Cod Bay at Plymouth, Massachusetts and only 53 of the Pilgrims survived that first winter, thanks to the help of the local Indians. But, the following summer was good for them.
The First Thanksgiving Celebration
“After their first harvest, the colonists of the Plymouth Plantation held a celebration of food and feasting in the fall of 1621. Indian chiefs Massassoit, Squanto and Samoset joined in the celebration with ninety of their men in the three-day event. (2)
According to William Bradford, in his journal entitled Of Plimoth Plantation: “They begane now to gather in ye small harvest they had, and to fitte up their houses and dwellings against winter, being all well recovered in health & strenght, and had all things in good plenty; fFor as some were thus imployed in affairs abroad, others were excersised in fishing, aboute codd, & bass, & other fish, of which yey tooke good store, of which every family had their portion. All ye somer ther was no want. And now begane to come in store of foule, as winter approached, of which this place did abound when they came first (but afterward decreased by degrees). And besids water foule, ther was great store of wild Turkies, of which they tooke many, besids venison, &c. Besids, they had about a peck a meale a weeke to a person, or now since harvest, Indean corn to yt proportion. Which made many afterwards write so largly of their plenty hear to their freinds in England, which were not fained, but true reports.”
According to Edward Winslow in his book Mourt’s Relation: “our harvest being gotten in, our governour sent foure men on fowling, that so we might after a speciall manner rejoyce together, after we had gathered the fruits of our labours ; they foure in one day killed as much fowle, as with a little helpe beside, served the Company almost a weeke, at which time amongst other Recreations, we exercised our Armes, many of the Indians coming amongst us, and amongst the rest their greatest king Massasoyt, with some ninetie men, whom for three dayes we entertained and feasted, and they went out and killed five Deere, which they brought to the Plantation and bestowed on our Governour, and upon the Captaine and others. And although it be not always so plentifull, as it was at this time with us, yet by the goodness of God, we are so farre from want, that we often wish you partakers of our plentie.”
The First Official Thanksgiving Day
In 1623, the first official day of Thanksgiving was proclaimed by Plymouth Colony Governor William Bradford
Bradford’s Thanksgiving Proclamation:
Inasmuch as the great Father has given us this year an abundant harvest of Indian corn, wheat, peas, beans, squashes, and garden vegetables, and has made the forests to abound with game and the sea with fish and clams, and inasmuch as he has protected us from the ravages of the savages, has spared us from pestilence and disease, has granted us freedom to worship God according to the dictates of our own conscience. Now I, your magistrate, do proclaim that all ye Pilgrims, with your wives and ye little ones, do gather at ye meeting house, on ye hill, between the hours of 9 and 12 in the day time, on Thursday, November 29th, of the year of our Lord one thousand six hundred and twenty-three and the third year since ye Pilgrims landed on ye Pilgrim Rock, there to listen to ye pastor and render thanksgiving to ye Almighty God for all His blessings.
Ye Governor of Ye Colony
Through the years, subsequent Thanksgiving Day proclamations were made and dates for celebrating it were set by Congress and various U.S. presidents.
1777 Proclamation by the Continental Congress
On November 1, 1777, by order of Congress, the first National Thanksgiving Proclamation was approved, and signed by Henry Laurens, President of the Continental Congress. The third Thursday of December, 1777 was officially set aside: “…for solemn thanksgiving and praise. That with one heart and one voice the good people may express the grateful feelings of their hearts, and consecrate themselves to the service of their Divine Benefactor;… and their humble and earnest supplication that it may please God, through the merits of Jesus Christ, mercifully to forgive and blot hem (their manifold sins) out of remembrance… That it may please Him… to take schools and seminaries of education, so necessary for cultivating the principles of true liberty, virtue and piety under His nurturing hand, and to prosper the means of religion for the promotion and enlargement of that kingdom which consisteth of ‘righteousness, peace and joy in the Holy Ghost’…”
First Thanksgiving Proclamation by the American Government
In 1789, it was President George Washington who issued the first Thanksgiving Proclamation by the American government: WHEREAS, It is the duty of all nations to acknowledge the providence of Almighty God, to obey His will, to be grateful for His benefits, and humbly to implore His protection and favor; WHEREAS, Both the houses of Congress have, by their joint committee, requested me “to recommend to the people of the United States a day of public thanksgiving and prayer, to be observed by acknowledging with grateful hearts the many and signal favors of Almighty God, especially by affording them an opportunity peaceably to establish a form of government for their safety and happiness:”
Now, therefore, I do recommend and assign Thursday, the 26th day of November next, to be devoted by the people of these States to the service of that great and glorious Being who is the beneficent author of all the good that was, that is, or that will be; that we may then all unite in rendering unto Him our sincere and humble thanks for His kind care and protection of the people of this country previous to their becoming a nation; for the signal and manifold mercies and the favorable interpositions of His providence in the course and conclusion of the late war; for the great degree of tranquility, union, and plenty which we have since enjoyed; for the peaceable and rational manner in which we have been enable to establish constitutions of government for our safety and happiness, and particularly the national one now lately instituted’ for the civil and religious liberty with which we are blessed, and the means we have of acquiring and diffusing useful knowledge; and, in general, for all the great and various favors which He has been pleased to confer upon us. And also that we may then unite in most humbly offering our prayers and supplications to the great Lord and Ruler of Nations and beseech Him to pardon our national and other transgressions; to enable us all, whether in public or private stations, to perform our several and relative duties properly and punctually; to render our National Government a blessing to all the people by constantly being a Government of wise, just, and constitutional laws, discreetly and faithfully executed and obeyed; to protect and guide all sovereigns and nations (especially such as have show kindness to us), and to bless them with good governments, peace, and concord; to promote the knowledge and practice of true religion and virtue, and the increase of science among them and us; and, generally to grant unto all mankind such a degree of temporal prosperity as He alone knows to be best. –George Washington – October 3, 1789
Lincoln Makes Last Thursday in November Official Day of Thanksgiving
Then in in 1863, President Abraham Lincoln established the last Thursday in November as the day of national thanksgiving with his Thanksgiving Proclamation:
Washington, D.C. October 3, 1863
By the President of the United States of America. A Proclamation.
The year that is drawing towards its close, has been filled with the blessings of fruitful fields and healthful skies. To these bounties, which are so constantly enjoyed that we are prone to forget the source from which they come, others have been added, which are of so extraordinary a nature, that they cannot fail to penetrate and soften even the heart which is habitually insensible to the ever watchful providence of Almighty God. In the midst of a civil war of unequaled magnitude and severity, which has sometimes seemed to foreign States to invite and to provoke their aggression, peace has been preserved with all nations, order has been maintained, the laws have been respected and obeyed, and harmony has prevailed everywhere except in the theatre of military conflict; while that theatre has been greatly contracted by the advancing armies and navies of the Union.
Needful diversions of wealth and of strength from the fields of peaceful industry to the national defence, have not arrested the plough, the shuttle or the ship; the axe has enlarged the borders of our settlements, and the mines, as well of iron and coal as of the precious metals, have yielded even more abundantly than heretofore. Population has steadily increased, notwithstanding the waste that has been made in the camp, the siege and the battle-field; and the country, rejoicing in the consiousness of augmented strength and vigor, is permitted to expect continuance of years with large increase of freedom.
No human counsel hath devised nor hath any mortal hand worked out these great things. They are the gracious gifts of the Most High God, who, while dealing with us in anger for our sins, hath nevertheless remembered mercy. It has seemed to me fit and proper that they should be solemnly, reverently and gratefully acknowledged as with one heart and one voice by the whole American People. I do therefore invite my fellow citizens in every part of the United States, and also those who are at sea and those who are sojourning in foreign lands, to set apart and observe the last Thursday of November next, as a day of Thanksgiving and Praise to our beneficent Father who dwelleth in the Heavens.
And I recommend to them that while offering up the ascriptions justly due to Him for such singular deliverances and blessings, they do also, with humble penitence for our national perverseness and disobedience, commend to His tender care all those who have become widows, orphans, mourners or sufferers in the lamentable civil strife in which we are unavoidably engaged, and fervently implore the interposition of the Almighty Hand to heal the wounds of the nation and to restore it as soon as may be consistent with the Divine purposes to the full enjoyment of peace, harmony, tranquillity and Union.
In testimony whereof, I have hereunto set my hand and caused the Seal of the United States to be affixed. Done at the City of Washington, this Third day of October, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and sixty-three, and of the Independence of the Unites States the Eighty-eighth.
By the President: Abraham Lincoln
Since 1863, every President has issued an annual proclamation calling for the people of the nation to celebrate a national day of thanksgiving.
1941 Vote by Congress and President Roosevelt
But it wasn’t until October 6, 1941 that our federal government made it an official, national holiday, when Congress approved it.
“In 1939…the last Thursday in November fell on the last day of the month. Concerned that the shortened Christmas shopping season might dampen the economic recovery, President Franklin D. Roosevelt issued a Presidential Proclamation moving Thanksgiving to the second to last Thursday of November. As a result of the proclamation, 32 states issued similar proclamations while 16 states refused to accept the change and proclaimed Thanksgiving to be the last Thursday in November. For two years two days were celebrated as Thanksgiving – the President and part of the nation celebrated it on the second to last Thursday in November, while the rest of the country celebrated it the following week.
To end the confusion, Congress decided to set a fixed-date for the holiday. On October 6, 1941, the House passed a joint resolution declaring the last Thursday in November to be the legal Thanksgiving Day. The Senate, however, amended the resolution establishing the holiday as the fourth Thursday, which would take into account those years when November has five Thursdays. The House agreed to the amendment, and President Roosevelt signed the resolution on December 26, 1941, thus establishing the fourth Thursday in November as the Federal Thanksgiving Day holiday.” (3)
President John F. Kennedy’s Thanksgiving Proclamation, 1961
OCTOBER 27, 1961
BY THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES A PROCLAMATION :
“It is a good thing to give thanks unto the Lord.”
More than three centuries ago, the Pilgrims, after a year of hardship and peril, humbly and reverently set aside a special day upon which to give thanks to God for their preservation and for the good harvest from the virgin soil upon which they had labored. Grave and unknown dangers remained. Yet by their faith and by their toil they had survived the rigors of the harsh New England winter. Hence they paused in their labors to give thanks for the blessings that had been bestowed upon them by Divine Providence.
This year, as the harvest draws near its close and the year approaches its end, awesome perils again remain to be faced. Yet we have, as in the past, ample reason to be thankful for the abundance of our blessings. We are grateful for the blessings of faith and health and strength and for the imperishable spiritual gifts of love and hope. We give thanks, too, for our freedom as a nation; for the strength of our arms and the faith of our friends; for the beliefs and confidence we share; for our determination to stand firmly for what we believe to be right and to resist mightily what we believe to be base; and for the heritage of liberty bequeathed by our ancestors which we are privileged to preserve for our children and our children’s children.
It is right that we should be grateful for the plenty amidst which we live; the productivity of our farms, the output of our factories, the skill of our artisans, and the ingenuity of our investors. But in the midst of our thanksgiving, let us not be unmindful of the plight of those in many parts of the world to whom hunger is no stranger and the plight of those millions more who live without the blessings of liberty and freedom.
With some we are able to share our material abundance through our Food-for-Peace Program and through our support of the United Nations Freedom-from-Hunger Campaign. To all we can offer the sustenance of hope that we shall not fail in our unceasing efforts to make this a peaceful and prosperous world for all mankind.
NOW, THEREFORE, I, JOHN F. KENNEDY, President of the United States of America, in consonance with the joint resolution of Congress approved December 26, 1941, which designates the fourth Thursday in November of each year as Thanksgiving Day, do hereby proclaim Thursday, the twenty-third day of November of this year, as a day of national thanksgiving. I urge all citizens to make this Thanksgiving not merely a holiday from their labors, but rather a day of contemplation. I ask the head of each family to recount to his children the story of the first New England thanksgiving, thus to impress upon future generations the heritage of this nation born in toil, in danger, in purpose, and in the conviction that right and justice and freedom can through man’s efforts persevere and come to fruition with the blessing of God. Let us observe this day with reverence and with prayer that will rekindle in us the will and show us the way not only to preserve our blessings, but also to extend them to the four corners of the earth. Let us by our example, as well as by our material aid, assist all peoples of all nations who are striving to achieve a better life in freedom.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand and caused the Seal of the United States of America to be affixed. DONE at the City of Washington this twenty-seventh day of October in the year of our Lord nineteen hundred and sixty-one, and of the Independence of the United States of America the one hundred and eighty-sixth.
JOHN F. KENNEDY
Click here to read Kennedy’s final Thanksgiving Proclamation in 1963, just weeks before his assassination.
So we continue the celebration, today, with our family and friends, of giving thanks to God for his provisions to us personally and to our great nation, even in spite of our current economic challenges.
God bless you, God bless America and have a Happy Thanksgiving!
Learn more from the book Plymouth in the words of her Founders by Dr. Paul Jehle at http://www.amazon.com/Plymouth-Words-Founders-Paul-Jehle/dp/0972417346
By Eleanor O’Donnell
The Antioch Historical Society will host their final Summer Open Evening at the museum on Wednesday, August 21, 2013. We will feature a Vintage Car Show and an old fashioned Ice Cream Social, demonstrations of making ice cream in old fashion crank type ice cream maker.
The museum will be open from 1:00 – 4:00 pm and 6:00 – 9:00 pm. Admission is free.
We have had a nice turn out for the open house and have entertained many children with contests and snacks. Our goal has been to acquaint people with the museum and the history of the area. We have more people living in Antioch and area now than ever before. The museum welcomes everyone and hopes to show the history of Antioch and people who were here before us.
The museum has been adding some improvements, a new wrought iron fence at the front of the drive-way, new lighting in front of the building and new carpet in the hallway and Riverview Room. All provided by generous donations to the museum and fund raising efforts.
The museum is located at the corner of 1500 West 4th Street at the curve from Auto Center Drive.
For more information please visit www.art4antioch.org/ahs.asp.
Black History Month Special
By Jeff Belle
Frederick Augustus Washington Bailey, better known as Frederick Douglas, was born in slavery. The exact year of his birth was not known. However, in 1841, he changed his name to Frederick Douglas. He was such an impressive orator that many people doubted that he had ever been a slave.
On the other side of the Atlantic, some 100 years before Frederick Douglas, the transatlantic slave trade was well in place. In fact, transatlantic slave trade vessels had carried over 12 million enslaved Africans from their motherland to various regions of the world. The nine routes that were commonly used by these voyages were challenging and under extremely harsh conditions. The rough seas, tight quarters, and long journeys (55 to 114 days) made experienced crew members uncomfortable and afraid.
Many of the enslaved Africans arrived to Western Europe, United States, and the West Indies alive, but in poor physical and mental health. You see, on a typical voyage there were 300-3,000 enslaved African men, women and children all crowded in hot and humid in despicable filth. For example, males were put in six feet long by 14 inches spaces. Each was chained from ankle to wrist and given a bucket for excrements. These horrible sanitary conditions and torture lead many to attempt throwing themselves overboard. On many accounts, suicide occurred almost daily.
There are many causes of mortality with the transatlantic slave trade. From a public health perspective, environmental, political, and social injustice were the culprits. Nonetheless, insect-borne fever (typhus, malaria, diarrhea) were more prevalent among enslaved Africans during the middle passage of the journey. Small pox, measles, scurvy, yaws, and African Sleeping sickness were responsible for nearly 51.9% of deaths during this period of the journey. Also, violence, food and water shortages, and suicide contributed (34.8%) to their horrific deaths, especially during the pre-boarding phase and the post-arrival phase.
It wasn’t until 1781 when the British parliament enacted legislation requiring all British slave ships to carry an experienced surgeon. As a matter of fact, there were incentives for surgeons and ship captains that arrived in America with low (2%-5%) mortality rates. Cash incentives were given to captains and surgeons with ships which had a mortality rate below 2%. This legislation ultimately led to a reduction in the number of enslaved Africans carried on slave vessels.
In 1819 (about the estimated year of Mr. Douglas’s birth), the U.S.A. and Britain pass legislation and regulations requiring medical care on all slave ships; surgeons to keep and attest to accuracy of records; food and provisions for all enslaved Africans; and limiting the caring capacity of all slave ships.
William Wilberforce, a member of British parliament led the fight against slave trade and ultimately won its abolition in Britain in 1836. Ironically, Frederick Douglas had just begun the fight to end slavery in the United States. It would take a civil war, a courageous president, and another 30 years of social injustice and over 100,000 deaths to calm the troubled seas of the transatlantic slave trade.
Haines, R. McDonald, J. & Sholowitz, R. (2001). Mortality and Voyage length in the Middle Passage Revisited Exploration in Economic History, vol 37(4), p. 503-533.
Klien, H. S. & Engerman, S.L. (1997), Long-Term Trends in African Mortality during the Transatlantic Slave Trade, p.36-48.
William and Mary Quarterly, 3rd series, Vol I. VIII, No. 1, January 2001, pg. 93-118.
Jeff Belle is a graduate student and does extensive research and lectures in public policy and health care issues. He lives in Antioch.
Happy Thanksgiving, AntiochHerald.com readers!
Here’s an article posted, last year about this important, national holiday.
Allen Payton, Publisher